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AWS Solutions Architect Associate (SAA-C02)


  • AWS managed data warehouse (10x better performance than other data warehouses)
  • Based on PostgreSQL
  • Used for Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) and high performance querying
  • Columnar storage of data with massively parallel query execution in SQL
  • Faster querying than Athena due to indexes
  • Can be used for both long complex queries as well as short fast queries
  • Need to provision instances as a part of the Redshift cluster (pay for the instances provisioned)
  • Integrated with Business Intelligence (BI) tools such as QuickSight or Tableau
  • Redshift Cluster can have 1 to 128 nodes (128TB per node)
    • Leader Node: query planning & result aggregation
    • Compute Nodes: execute queries & send the result to leader node
  • No multi-AZ support (all the nodes will be in the same AZ)
  • Auto-healing feature

Loading data into Redshift

  • S3
    • Use COPY command to load data from an S3 bucket into Redshift
    • Without Enhanced VPC Routing
      • data goes through the public internet
    • Enhanced VPC Routing
      • data goes through the VPC without traversing the public internet
  • Kinesis Data Firehose
    • Sends data to S3 and issues a COPY command to load it into Redshift
  • EC2 Instance
    • Using JDBC driver
    • Used when an application needs to write data to Redshift
    • Optimal to write data in batches


  • Stored internally in S3
  • Incremental (only changes are saved)
  • Can be restored into a new Redshift cluster
  • Automated
    • based on a schedule or storage size (every 5 GB)
    • set retention
  • Manual
    • retains until you delete them
  • Feature to automatically copy snapshots into another region

Redshift Spectrum

  • Query data present in S3 without loading it into Redshift
  • Need to have a Redshift cluster to use this feature
  • Query is executed by 1000s of Redshift Spectrum nodes
  • Consumes much less of your cluster's processing capacity than other queries
  • Diagram
    • attachments/Pasted image 20220514110209.jpg

Last updated: 2022-05-20