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AWS Solutions Architect Associate (SAA-C02)


  • Global Service (a single trail can be applied to multiple regions)
  • Provides governance, compliance and audit for the AWS Account
  • Enabled by default
  • Records the API calls made within the AWS account
  • Event retention: 90 days
  • Export CloudTrail logs into
  • CloudTrail logs up to the last 90 days can be analyzed in CloudTrail Console. Older logs should be present in S3 and can be analyzed using Athena.

Modifications to log files can be detected by enabling Log File Validation on the logging bucket

Event Types

Management Events

  • Events of operations that modify AWS resources. Ex:
    • Creating a new IAM user
    • Deleting a subnet
  • Enabled by default
  • Can separate Read Events (that don’t modify resources) from Write Events (that may modify resources)

Data Events

  • Events of operations that modify data
    • S3 object-level activity
    • Lambda function execution
  • Disabled by default (due to high volume of data events)

Insight Events

  • Enable CloudTrail Insights to detect unusual activity in your account
    • inaccurate resource provisioning
    • hitting service limits
    • bursts of AWS IAM actions
    • gaps in periodic maintenance activity
  • CloudTrail Insights analyzes normal management events to create a baseline and then continuously analyzes write events to detect unusual patterns. If that happens, CloudTrail generates insight events that
    • show anomalies in the Cloud Trail console
    • can can be logged to S3
    • can trigger an EventBridge event for automation


CloudTrail logs are encrypted by default using SSE-S3

A single KMS key can be used to encrypt log files for trails applied to all regions

Last updated: 2023-02-20